Starting a CUSO

So, You Want to Start a CUSO?

We believe in the 6th cooperative principle: Cooperation among Cooperatives and there’s no better way than to work together using the Credit Union Service Organization model.

What is a CUSO?
A CUSO is an organization that is owned by credit unions in whole or in part that provides permitted financial services and/or operational services primarily to credit unions or members of credit unions.

How are CUSOs structured?
A CUSO must be a limited liability company, corporation or limited partnership. The corporation can be structured as a for-profit or as a non-profit cooperative. The most common form of CUSO is a limited liability company (“LLC”). CUSOs are typically run by boards appointed or elected by the owner credit unions.

Who owns CUSOs?
In order to be called a CUSO, a CUSO must have at least one credit union owner. CUSOs can be wholly owned by one credit union, wholly owned by multiple credit unions, or partially owned by credit unions and non-credit unions.

Who regulates CUSOs?
CUSOs are not regulated by the National Credit Union Administration (“NCUA”).* The Federal Credit Union Act provides the power to federal credit unions to invest and loan to a CUSO but does not give NCUA the power to regulate CUSOs.*

*[Federal credit unions may invest] in the shares, stocks, or obligations of any other organization, providing services which are associated with the routine operations of credit unions, up to 1 per centum of the total paid in and unimpaired capital and surplus of the credit union with the approval of the Board: Provided, however, That such authority does not include the power to acquire control directly or indirectly, of another financial institution, nor invest in shares, stocks or obligations of an insurance company, trade association, liquidity facility or any other similar organization, corporation, or association, except as otherwise expressly provided by this chapter.

What services do CUSOs provide?
CUSOs provide or facilitate financial services to credit union members; e.g., investment and insurance services. CUSOs also provide or facilitate operational services to credit unions; e.g. lending support services, IT services and compliance services. NCUA’s regulation lists the specific services CUSOs may provide.* State chartered credit unions tend to permit the same services and some states have additional permitted services.

Who may a CUSO serve?
CUSOs must primarily serve credit unions or members of credit unions that have a contractual relationship with the CUSO. NCUA’s rules are not specific in how to measure “primarily serves” but by practice it means 51% of the CUSO’s customers must be credit unions or members.

What are the limitations on credit union investments in CUSOs?
Federal credit unions may invest in the aggregate up to 1% of its paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus in CUSOs. In more understandable terms, it is the shares and undivided earnings of the credit union less reserves. Federal credit unions may loan the same amount in the aggregate. State chartered credit unions often have the same limits but some states allow higher percentage of capital to be invested or loaned to CUSOs.

How many CUSOs exist?
The National Credit Union Administration (“NCUA”)* requires CUSOs to make an information filing annually since 2016. The NCUA’s CUSO Registry as of 2016 has 974 CUSOs registered. Search on the official site.

The National Association of Credit Union Service Organizations (“NACUSO”)* has a data base called the CUSO Analyzer. NACUSO’s CUSO count has more recent data. As of 2018, NACUSO lists 1,103 CUSOs, 721 wholly owned and 382 owned by multiple credit unions.


Guy Messick, the CUSO Guru is our Legal Counsel. Guy and his team have formed countless CUSOs in the US. Read more about the History of CUSOs and How to Start One document from Messick, Lauer & Smith.

We are also very fortunate to have CU*Answers as a Platinum Partner. Their team created an amazing document: CUSO Formation: A Collection of CUSO Formation Considerations and Techniques.